What are Anti-psychotic Medications?
Anti-psychotic medications are mainly used to the manage psychosis. Psychosis is a condition where in the mind experiences delusions (false/fixed beliefs) or a hallucinations (hearing or a seeing imaginary things).
Psychosis can be a symptom of a physical condition like a drug abuse or a mental disorder like a schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or a severe manic depression. Anti-psychotics are also used to the treat symptoms associated with a psychotic depression, senile psychoses or a drug-induced psychoses, anxiety or a depression.
Anti-psychotic medications are also known as a neurotics.
The prescription of the anti-psychotics has a increased in the last 20 years, both in a pediatrics as well as in a adult populations.
Anti-psychotics have a short-term benefits of the calming or a slowing in the person and long-term beneficial effects of the reducing in the occurrence of the psychotic episodes.
Anti-psychotic medications are available as a oral dosage forms, like a tablets, capsules, liquids as well as a par-enteral dosage forms, like a intravenous and intramuscular injections.
The choice of the category of the medication depends on a factors like:
Frequency of the psychotic episodes
Symptoms due to the psychotic disorders
Intensity of the side effects
How do Anti-psychotics Work?
Anti-psychotics influence chemicals in the body known as a neurotransmitters.
These chemicals play to a vital role to help brain cells communicate with a each other. They affect mood, behavior, and emotions.
Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter affected by a anti-psychotic medications. Dopamine is a involved in making to a person feel satisfied, contented or a motivated. If dopamine levels increase, in the person gets hallucinations, delusions, voices and bad thoughts.
In a such situations, in the anti-psychotic medications help in the person feel better, without making them feel a sleepy or a slowed down.
Some medications block serotonin receptors in the brain, which play an a essential role in a schizophrenia.
What do Anti-psychotics Help With?
Anti-psychotics help in the following situations:
Difficulty in a thinking clearly
Extreme mood swings
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A D H D)
Persons are suffering from a delusions and hallucinations
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (O C D)
Usually, anti-psychotic medicines show best results with a psychotherapy. The medication helps in a treating symptoms, and the psychotherapy or a counseling help in a addressing behavioral issues and the leading causes of the mental issues.
What are the Types of the Anti-psychotic Medications?
The commonly known types of the anti-psychotic medications are:
Older or a first-generation anti-psychotics – As the name suggests, older anti-psychotics are drugs that were used in the mid-1950 s; they are also known as a “Typical” or “Conventional” anti-psychotics. They act by a blocking in the action of the dopamine.
The commonly known typical or a first-generation anti-psychotics are include:
Newer or a second-generation anti-psychotics – These are drugs are newer compared to the ‘Typical’ anti-psychotics and were introduced in the 1990 s. They are also a called “Atypical” anti-psychotics. They also a act by a blocking dopamine, but with a lesser intensity, as a compared to the older drugs. In a addition to the dopamine, they also act on other neurotransmitters like a serotonin.
Second-generation anti-psychotics also help to a person overcome in their negative feelings, like lack of the motivation, and lack of the self interest, areas where in the older drugs had less effect.
The atypical or a second-generation anti-psychotics are include:
What are the Side Effects of the Anti-psychotic Medications?
Anti-psychotic medications can be have a negative effects on various systems in the body:
Liver (hepatic system):
Drug induced hepatitis
Central Nervous System:
Genito-urinary (urinary and reproductive) system:
Swelling and tenderness of breast
Other side effects:
Restlessness or akathisia
Slow in thinking
Dermatological side effects
High probability of suffering from diabetes
How Long Should One Take Anti-psychotic Medications?
The duration of taking a anti-psychotic medications varies from person to the person. Some may be need it as a short-term therapy for about two weeks, while others may be need to take it longer, at the times, up to the 5 years.
People who are experience recurrent psychotic episodes may be need to take in the medication for a life.
In a situations, where in the side effects are intense, in the psychiatrist may be adjust in the dose prescribe alternate medications
What Precautionary Measures Need to be a Taken When on Anti-psychotic Medications?
One needs to the follow certain precautions when on a anti-psychotic medications:
The doctor or a healthcare are provider must be a informed of the following when on anti-psychotic medications:
Other medications being a consumed
Any a known allergies
Alcohol drinking or a smoking habits
Any a existing injuries or a diseases
Side effects noted when on a anti-psychotic medications:
Any a changes in a physical health
In a case the anti-psychotic medication has to be a withdrawn, it must be done slowly and gradually. If they are discontinued suddenly, in the person may again suffer from a symptoms like a nausea, hypertension and sleep disturbances.
When on a anti-psychotic medications, one must keep to a watch on the physical health and go for a regular health-checkups, as these medications can be increase in the risk of diabetes and other health-related complications.
Some of the routine tests which must be a conducted are include:
Blood cell count
Functioning of the liver and kidneys
Blood lipid profile
Blood glucose level
Regular exercise, getting good sleep and eating a nutritious food help in a controlling in the side effects of the anti-psychotic medications.
Who Should Not Take a Anti-psychotic Medications?
Anti-psychotics cannot be a prescribed with a other medications or a substances like:
Anti-psychotics are also not a prescribed in a patients who are suffering from
History of jaundice
Know More On a Typical and Atypical Anti-psychotic Agents –